Save Plot In R

Multiple graphs on one page (ggplot2) Problem. Do X in Y: Use a function to save many plots to a list in R You know that miserable feeling when you realize you are copying and pasting snippets of code and modifying them with hard-coded variables?. Some packages are: apsrtable, xtable, texreg, memisc, outreg …and counting. Plot Raster Data in R. PDF is a vector file format. The PLOT procedure plots the values of two variables for each observation in an input SAS data set. Plot Digitizer is a Java program used to digitize scanned plots of functional data. path is the path of where I want to save the pptx. panel=TRUE, type="h") Plot each column of data in a separate panel, setting the range of the y-axis for each panel based on each column of data. By Kate Gibson. 1 RStudio RStudio has the easiest way to save a PDFs. You will discuss the integration between Hadoop and R and will integrate R with Tableau. factor command is used to cast the data as factors and ensures that R treats it as discrete. Question: How to save work done in R? Answer: All of the objects and functions that are created (you R workspace) can be saved in a file. The last thing you want to do in this situation is: (1) produce each plot one-by-one, (2) right click on each singly-produced plot to save, (3) give the plot a unique name, and (4) repeat. For math, science, nutrition, history. Being able to go from idea to result with the least possible delay is key to doing good research. off() until you get the message "null device 1" and then try it once again. ggsave is a convenient function for saving the last plot that you displayed. plot_forecast <- function(){ # Create a png object with. The next line of code adds a regression line to this graph. R-Markdown is a great way to create dynamic documents with embedded chunks of R code. Create the plot. If you're behind a web filter, please make sure that the domains *. 1:100; y = 3*x; plot(x,y, 'r:') The third input consists of one to three characters which specify a color, point marker type, and/or line style. It defaults to saving the last plot that you displayed, using the size of the current graphics device. This section describes the implementation of the conventions for graphics devices set out in the "R Internals Manual". Would like to do that in order to embed elsewhere. Not all parameters of the plot can be changed interactively right now though, eg. The "pdf 2" that is printed indicates control was returned to another pdf device. Use R in C#: Create a data plot and save it as png Veröffentlicht am November 22, 2015 von oliverfunke As shown in a previously article it is easy to integrate R in a C# application by using R. You will discuss the integration between Hadoop and R and will integrate R with Tableau. Here is how you can overcome this problem. When there is more than one plot request, the plot-request list must appear in parentheses. Then we will compare with the canned procedure, as well as Stata. Skip to content. Usage boxplot. Add Title for a Page with Multiple Plots in R You may want to add a title for a plot page that contains multiple diagrams. For the following example to work, you will also need to install ggplot2. The page size can be set by using the following line: pdf("plot. Lattice plots are objects; therefore you can assign them to variables, just like any other object. Base R is also a good option to build a scatterplot, using the plot() function. Here is R script and my question is How can I plot 12 images per plot or save 12 images per image file because I have total 864 images. box_plot: You store the graph into the variable box_plot It is helpful for further use or avoid too complex line of codes; Add the geometric object box plot. This post is all about how to export anti-aliased, high resolution plots from R in Windows. To get a look at most of the features available in plot interactions, see the advanced demo app. decision_trees. This is accomplished by: Entering the win. Course Description. SQL Server 2016 comes with the integration of the popular language R into the database engine. Ploting multiple graphs in single one page (or canvas) with classic R command is straightforward and easy. Create the plot. They do not work for grid-based graphics, such as ggplot2, lattice, and so on. With extra = "auto" (the default for rpart. Here is how you can overcome this problem. Fagan back in the 60's. You must use the dev. Using Basic R To Plot Multiple Lines Or Points In The Same R Plot To plot two or more graphs in the same plot, you basically start by making a typical basic plot in R. This video describes how you can combine and save plots in R. There are currently three different functions in the igraph package which can draw graph in various ways: plot. gganimate is an extension of the ggplot2 package for creating animated ggplots. Spatial data in R: Using R as a GIS. mtext: Write Text into the Margins of a Plot Description Usage Arguments Details Side Effects References See Also Examples Description. device: A device number of a windows device, by default the current device. ----- Subsurface Modeling August 13-16, 1996 U. We can save these plots as a file on disk with the help of built-in functions. Create the plot. It is therefore funny that exporting these plots is such an issue in Windows. In most cases, matplotlib will simply output the chart to your viewport when the. The leading platform for enterprise achievement. Subscribe today and save up to 84% off the cover price. com - Aahil Dayani. The Hmisc library contains many functions useful for data analysis, high-level graphics, utility operations, functions for computing sample size and power, translating SAS datasets into S, imputing missing values, advanced table making, variable clustering, character string manipulation, conversion of S objects to LaTeX code, recoding variables, and. In today's tutorial, we'll be plotting accuracy and loss using the mxnet library. , Excel or OpenOffice) as a data editor, save as a tab or comma delimited file, and then read the data from that file or read from the clipboard using the read. The graphical ablility of R is often listed as a major reason for choosing the language. The second statemen t pro duces con tour plots of the matrix Z using v ectors x and y to con trol the scaling on the x-and y-axes. Step 8: Save the plot. Author: Thomas Breloff (@tbreloff) To get started, see the tutorial. This function is typically is called by boxplot to gather the statistics necessary for producing box plots, but may be invoked separately. Portfolio Optimization using R and Plotly Published April 3, 2016 by Riddhiman in Business Intelligence , Data Visualization , R In this post we’ll focus on showcasing Plotly’s WebGL capabilities by charting financial portfolios using an R package called PortfolioAnalytics. save writes an external representation of R objects to the specified file. Open a device, using png,. Lattice plots are objects; therefore you can assign them to variables, just like any other object. The short story usually has one plot so it can be read in one sitting. Plotting Two. We can convert R plots into high-quality PNG, JPEG, TIFF bitmap. The code is executable at your R-Studio device as long as you do not run the server version. A couple weeks ago I stumbled across a feature in R that I had never heard of before. conf=TRUE, do. com April 19, 2017 ~ Deepesh Singh As being a data scientist, plotting data is one of the first things we generally do. Matplotlib is capable of creating all manner of graphs, plots, charts, histograms, and much more. The plot is a planned, logical series of events having a beginning, middle, and end. By default the arguments are evaluated with feval (@plot, x, y). Tap into the extensive visualization functionality enabled by the Plots ecosystem, and easily build your own complex graphics components with recipes. Could someone tell me which function I shall use? [R] save plot as jpg/gif. Haitjema Jack Wittman Vic Kelson Nancy Bauch School of Public and Environmental Affairs Indiana University, Bloomington CR 818029 Project Officer Stephen R. baptiste is on the right track with their suggestion of png for a nice raster type plot. The plot command will try to produce the appropriate plots based on the data type. This example demonstrates use of several different R packages that provide functions for reading and/or writing shapefiles. pdf pdffilesomePDFPath for i in. Scatterplots Simple Scatterplot. Static Image Export in Python Plotly allows you to save static images of your plots. Create the normal probability plot for the standardized residual of the data set faithful. Hi, I'm a new to both R and LaTeX. The "Save Plot" button generates a new image containing a screenshot of the surface plot. A key objective of this lesson is showing how to call R functions from Transact-SQL in stored procedures and save the results in application file formats: Create a stored procedure using RxHistogram to generate an R plot as varbinary data. In the code snippets below, green text behind a # sign is considered comments by R, so everything after a # sign on a line will be ignored by R. In a situation where I'm already looking at my lot on my PC and would just want to save it. We’ll create a bit of data to use in the examples:. Conventions. A vital part of statistics is producing nice plots, an area where R is outstanding. We can convert R plots into high-quality PNG, JPEG, TIFF bitmap. Plotting Learning Curves¶. After a performance of Betrayal, a …. One approach is to make plots on a null device, record the plot, and then display it later:. copy command, to copy the contents of the graph window to a file without having to re-enter the commands. First you need to install tikzDevice in R through install. I'd like to save the plot on my disk without open a new plot window. metafile" function but it didn't look nice. It’s easy coding, wide number of packages, and Free software is making people crazy about R programming language. save plot to pdf python Dev. Again, pretty obvious subject. TikZ plots will consist of vectors that will directly be coded into the LaTeX document so that there is no loss in image quality. The following is an introduction for producing simple graphs with the R Programming Language. HTML widgets work just like R plots except they produce interactive web visualizations. Examples of using Pandas plotting, plotnine, Seaborn, and Matplotlib. HTML widgets can be used at the R console as well as embedded in R Markdown reports and Shiny web applications. Saved Plot Builder plots use the file extension. off() This is very useful when one is using pdflatex to compile your latex, as pdflatex cannot handle ps files. Simply double click on a series of points to create your route. Portfolio Optimization using R and Plotly Published April 3, 2016 by Riddhiman in Business Intelligence , Data Visualization , R In this post we’ll focus on showcasing Plotly’s WebGL capabilities by charting financial portfolios using an R package called PortfolioAnalytics. Course Description. As R runs on many operating systems, the R commands are very helpful in the above case to plot graphs and to save them in a file. Shiny also supports interactions with arbitrary bitmap (for example, PNG or JPEG) images. mtext: Write Text into the Margins of a Plot Description Usage Arguments Details Side Effects References See Also Examples Description. Property Description. This straightforward tutorial should teach you the. Used as a mind-map, Popplet helps students think and learn visually. In R, I use par to prepare four boxplots (using boxplot) as a single image, which I save with the png() command. But none of them look good when I try to resize it for putting it on a presentation slide. I want to save everything. To make our work easier and more comparable to other techniques, we will use a LabDSV function called pco() which simply calls cmdscale with specific arguments, and provides more convenient plotting routines. The document is self contained and fully reproducible which makes it very easy to share. The arguments x1 and y1 define the arguments for the first plot and x1 and y2 for the second. Save the currnently active RStudio as an image file. The first plot gives an idea of whether there is any curvature in the data. library(stringr) library(reshape2) library(ggplot2) library(ggthemes) library(pander) # update this file path to point toward appropriate folders on your computer. SOCIETY -NL% ChunkerPreviousKey insnaddress= =7(L elifoptin('--no-location',): Usingdefaultcontexts:%s -events linux/atmclip. If I export several PDF documents like this, the end PDF is super laggy to open. R can create almost any plot imaginable and as with most things in R if you don’t know where to start, try Google. The ggplot2 implies " Grammar of Graphics " which believes in the principle that a plot can be split into the following basic parts -. off to close the tiff device, and return the plotting to the R console (or RStudio). removing background colour and grid in R plots. Exporting nice plots in R. The data that is defined above, though, is numeric data. In cowplot: Streamlined Plot Theme and Plot Annotations for 'ggplot2'. Eventbrite - Simplykart Inc presents Data Science Certification Training in Côte-Saint-Luc, PE - Tuesday, November 26, 2019 | Friday, November 29, 2019 at Business Hotel / Regus Business Centre, Côte-Saint-Luc, PE, PE. You can insert an R code chunk either using the RStudio toolbar (the Insert button) or the keyboard shortcut Ctrl + Alt + I (Cmd + Option + I on macOS). (Important: if you do not select the plot you won’t be able to save it) and on the R menu bar (Note: R menu bar and not the R commander menu bar) going to File/Save as/Jpeg and click on 100% quality …. R will ask you if you want to save or delete the global environment when you quit. miles per gallon. Hi, I want to save a plot automatically as a pdf and jpg, and if I open the pdf device first and jpeg second only the jpeg file saves correctly …. Hi I am new (with Rstudio too)! I was wondering if there is any function in Rstudio to save in a txt file both the input and output of the console. The common bits of the three plotting functions plot. Sign in Sign up Instantly share code, notes, and. My plots are not showing up in the 'plots' area. The Cairo package provides a function that can produce high quality image files from R plots. Welcome the R graph gallery, a collection of charts made with the R programming language. If it isn't suitable for your needs, you can copy and modify it. png formats. Course Description. The document is self contained and fully reproducible which makes it very easy to share. ) If you do save the global environment, then you can start another R session with those objects in the global environment at the start of the new session. This is implied by Strange to be All According to Plan in his attempts to influence the future down that 1-in-14-million path that leads to their eventual success. The problem is that it seems that the amount of data in these exported PDF from R are big e. com The last thing you want to do in this situation is: (1) produce each plot one-by-one, (2) right click on each singly-produced plot to save, (3) give the plot a unique name, and (4) repeat. A bar chart represents data in rectangular bars with length of the bar proportional to the value of the variable. To save the plot click the 'Save' button on the left-hand side. The filename under which to save the plot, without the extension. org are unblocked. Plotting a table of numbers as an image using R Problem : How to plot a table of numbers such that the values are represented by color? Solution : Use the function below by handing it a matrix of numbers. Getting Started With the R Commander* John Fox Version 2. The filename under which to save the plot, without the extension. There are at least two ways that you can save a graph made in R into a different format (e. by Matt Sundquist, Plotly Co-founder It's delightfully smooth to publish R code, plots, and presentations to the web. factor command is used to cast the data as factors and ensures that R treats it as discrete. savePlotAsImage. One of the best things of R is the plotting capability and I recently decided to try to make R plots from Azure ML studio. Notice that the R has gone up a lot and is now significant, and the residuals plot looks fine. Saving plot results as files In an interactive R session, we typically generate a collection of different plots, often using the results to help us decide how to proceed with our analysis. This section describes the implementation of the conventions for graphics devices set out in the "R Internals Manual". While learning about decision tree I. The plot interaction article describes how to interact with plots generated by R’s base graphics and ggplot2. Simple Plot Examples in R Below are some simple examples of how to plot a line in R, how to fit a line to some points, and how to add more points to a graph. Note that all code samples in this tutorial assume that this data has already been read into an R variable and has been attached. Six years ago I learned of rggobi and that was my means of creating interactive scatter plots. Plot to save. Plots - powerful convenience for visualization in Julia. savePlotAsImage (file, format = c. Hi I am new (with Rstudio too)! I was wondering if there is any function in Rstudio to save in a txt file both the input and output of the console. Interactive comparison of Python plotting libraries for exploratory data analysis. The last thing you want to do in this situation is: (1) produce each plot one-by-one, (2) right click on each singly-produced plot to save, (3) give the plot a unique name, and (4) repeat. In a situation where I'm already looking at my lot on my PC and would just want to save it. He currently works as an interdisciplinary research director at the University of Washington, conducts his own astronomy research, and spends time advising and consulting with local scientists from a wide range of fields. There's actually more than one way to make a scatter plot in R, so I'll show you two: How to make a scatter plot with base R; How to make a scatter plot with ggplot2; I definitely have a preference for the ggplot2 version, but the base R version is still common. Generalized additive models in R GAMs in R are a nonparametric extension of GLMs, used often for the case when you have no a priori reason for choosing a particular response function (such as linear, quadratic, etc. For instance, one can do the following trick, - add a class to the compound object (Grid-based, obviously). Seamlessly connect and integrate your favorite tools and apps. I have collected more than any other archive focusing on this genre but I can't account for all new stories so please don't hesitate to PM me if you find or write one not among those I have collected. If you save to a vector graphics file and if the figure RendererMode property is set to 'auto', then print automatically attempts to use the Painters renderer. Plot in Noida - 3+ Plot for sale by Srishti Builders and Developers Pvt. theme_bw: Use ggplot2::theme_bw() to plot the history in black. Or, right-click and choose “Save As” to download the slides. A archive of all the video-game plot-line stories, like Harry Potter Game of the Year Edition, Naruto Ramen Days or Bakudo X Life is a Game. > I am generating multiple plots and would like to save them as jpg or gif > files. R can be freely downloaded at http:\\r-project. Number of subplot columns. Plot two sets of data with independent y-axes and a common x-axis. HTML widgets can be used at the R console as well as embedded in R Markdown reports and Shiny web applications. Lab 1: Introduction to R and RStudio The goal of this lab is to introduce you to R and RStudio, which you’ll be using throughout the course both to learn the statistical concepts discussed in the textbook and also to analyze real data and come to informed conclusions. R Linear Model Function. This post is on creating animated plots using R. It handles most common models out of the box. conf=TRUE, do. HTML widgets work just like R plots except they produce interactive web visualizations. stats(x, coef = 1. What are the packages required to plot a fancy Rpart plot in R. 1 The R function plot() The plot() function is one of the most frequently used plotting functions in R. The Cairo package provides a function that can produce high quality image files from R plots. In order to save the graphs we can use the traditional approach (using the export option), or ggsave function provided by the ggplot2 package. RData by using the save() function or the save. Creates a plot with 3 curves, x,y1, y2, y3 must be the same length, returns the figure number. Scatterplots Simple Scatterplot. 1 Line plots The basic syntax for creating line plots is plt. Static Image Export in Python Plotly allows you to save static images of your plots. Open a device, using png,. Ordered Simple Plot: Plot ordered pairs on the graph, and they will be connected in the order that they are input. The first method involves opening a graph window, while the second method does not. copy command, to copy the contents of the graph window to a file without having to re-enter the commands. Here we will talk about the base graphics and the ggplot2 package. Yesterday a group of Al Qaeda terrorists assaulted a natural gas plant in Algeria and killed two foreigners while taking 41 other hostage. How to save the graphics in several separate pages with R? I obtained a series of pictures with R and I want to save these pictures as pdf. • As mentioned above, one of the big perks of using R is flexibility. Below is an example of a forest plot with three subgroups. View source: R/save. may seem tricky. However, except in rare situations, these com-mands will work in R on UNIX and Macintosh machines as well as in S-Plus on any platform. rda files allow a user to save their R data structures such as vectors, matrices, and data frames. Use under = TRUEto put those details under the boxes. The last thing you want to do in this situation is: (1) produce each plot one-by-one, (2) right click on each singly-produced plot to save, (3) give the plot a unique name, and (4) repeat. If you leave tm unspecified, the last tmap plot printed will be saved. Save R Objects Description. savePlotAsImage. The "Save Plot" button generates a new image containing a screenshot of the surface plot. Use extrato add more details to the node labels, as shown in Figures 3 and 4. It provides various features that help with creating publication-quality figures, such as a set of themes, functions to align plots and arrange them into complex compound figures, and functions that make it easy to annotate plots and or mix plots. To generate the residuals plot, click the red down arrow next to Linear Fit and select Plot Residuals. I first type x11(orientation='portrait',width=4,height=3. The functions save(), load(), and the R file type. A box-and-whisker plot displays the mean, quartiles, and minimum and maximum observations for a group. In cowplot: Streamlined Plot Theme and Plot Annotations for 'ggplot2'. This function is a simplified front-end to the workhorse function prp, with only the most useful arguments of that function. Note most plotting commands always start a new plot, erasing the current plot if necessary. decision_trees. This is accomplished by: Entering the win. colors: colors[1] is used to plot effects, colors[2] to plot confidence bands. Hi, I want to save a plot automatically as a pdf and jpg, and if I open the pdf device first and jpeg second only the jpeg file saves correctly …. Additionally, density plots are especially useful for comparison of distributions. Programming in R. The Sunday Before Should Be a Huge Prep Day The Sunday before a big meal (or the last day beforehand where you don’t have to work) is a great day to do a lot of prep work. From reservations and recommendations to routes and reroutes, we have the tools to help you stay on track and discover new adventures (to show that you can do both instead of one or the other). The size can be changed:If your problem is the lack of green points. I saved with. The default device size is 7 inches square. Follow the suggested instructions below. In a mulitline plot, the successive colors correspond to the levels of the z. Programming in R. You will discuss the integration between Hadoop and R and will integrate R with Tableau. You pass the dataset data_air_nona to ggplot. R Markdown is a file format for making dynamic documents with R. However, if you spread out the tasks like this, you can do the real thing and save money and have better results. The + sign means you want R to keep reading the code. off() until you get the message "null device 1" and then try it once again. This post will be the first in a multi part series on how to embed Plotly graphs in R-Markdown documents as well as presentations. When we have more than two variables and we want to find the correlation between one variable versus the remaining ones we use scatter plot matrix. The easy way is to use the multiplot function, defined at the bottom of this page. It's also possible to save the graph using R codes as follow: Specify files to save your image using a function such as jpeg (), png (), svg () or pdf (). This will bring up a window that allows you to specify the location on your computer where you want to save the plot as a Jpeg image. Let's plot the results: >plot(f) R Tutorials: R Data Types. You need to convert the data to factors to make sure that the plot command treats it in an appropriate way. The last thing you want to do in this situation is: (1) produce each plot one-by-one, (2) right click on each singly-produced plot to save, (3) give the plot a unique name, and (4) repeat. Save a rasterPCA plot as a raster file in R [closed] Calculates R-mode PCA for RasterBricks or RasterStacks and returns a RasterBrick with multiple layers of PCA. plot(R, multi. The areas in bold indicate new text that was added to the previous example. First you need to install tikzDevice in R through install. Giving you access to features and tools to enhance your daily life. The height (in inches) of the plot or of one sub-plot if nrow or ncol > 1. Author: Thomas Breloff (@tbreloff) To get started, see the tutorial. Matplotlib can be used in Python scripts, the Python and IPython shells, the Jupyter notebook, web application servers, and four graphical user interface toolkits. Description. --- output: html_document --- This is an R Markdown document. Only a single (the last) plot is saved. SUBSCRIBE NOW. I want to save everything. This post is on creating animated plots using R. I am trying to draw a box plot in R but only half of. Interactive comparison of Python plotting libraries for exploratory data analysis. , you don't have to pay for it). In this book, you'll gain insight and practical skills for creating interactive and dynamic web graphics for data analysis from R. However, saving base R graphics to objects for later reuse is a little trickier, since plots are built line-by-line into specific devices. We apply the lm function to a formula that describes the variable eruptions by the variable waiting, and save the linear regression model in a new variable eruption. Jake VanderPlas is a long-time user and developer of the Python scientific stack. I have created separate plots in multiple graphics windows using the windows() function in R. Here we will talk about the base graphics and the ggplot2 package. Box Plot Statistics Description. I have collected more than any other archive focusing on this genre but I can't account for all new stories so please don't hesitate to PM me if you find or write one not among those I have collected. This is particularly true in the early phases of an exploratory data analysis, but once we have generated a plot we want to share with others, it is. Released by Marek Hlavac on March. metafile function (with the location to save the WMF) to begin recording plots. 6 R code chunks and inline R code. Usage boxplot. All gists Back to GitHub. The functions like plot() or hist() create R plots on the screen. This video describes how you can combine and save plots in R. The graphical ablility of R is often listed as a major reason for choosing the language. Note most plotting commands always start a new plot, erasing the current plot if necessary. Pretty R highlights R code for HTML. R tip: Export a ggplot plot in PDF, EPS and PNG files - export_plot. This example describes an experience using the Office X version for Macintosh. Hi, I'm hoping someone can assist. The most commonly used visualizations for graphical exploratory analysis are: Histogram, Density Plot, Box Plot and Scatterplot. A line or two of R code is all it takes to produce a D3 graphic or Leaflet map. It gives his history as well as his message about the takeover of our government, th. HTML widgets work just like R plots except they produce interactive web visualizations. Exporting multiple graphs in same plot to PDF in R – TopBullets. Create the plot. The ggplot2 implies " Grammar of Graphics " which believes in the principle that a plot can be split into the following basic parts -. Save the currnently active RStudio as an image file. We start by displaying each information in distinct plots. We apply the lm function to a formula that describes the variable eruptions by the variable waiting, and save the linear regression model in a new variable eruption. How to display a legend outside a R plot April 30, 2014 - how-to, R If you still don't use ggplot2 or, as I do, have to use the old and finicky plot() function, read on to discover a trick I use to display a legend outside the plotting area. Skip navigation Sign in. Land for sale in Wigan, Lancashire. Once you have both R packages, you can use this Rscript as. There's actually more than one way to make a scatter plot in R, so I'll show you two: How to make a scatter plot with base R; How to make a scatter plot with ggplot2; I definitely have a preference for the ggplot2 version, but the base R version is still common. A plot over X11? The output device is important (as R can plot to many different devices). Method to use for plotting. In order to use this data, it must somehow be digitized. ggsave() is a convenient function for saving a plot. Environmental Protection Agency Subsurface Protection and Remediation Division National Risk Management Research Laboratory Ada, Oklahoma Purpose This 3-1/2 day training course will include an introduction to the process and philosophy of modeling, and a discussion of the availability of models. R/S-Plus MATLAB/Octave Description; help. If you use pdflatex saving the plot as a PDF allows it to be conveniently included in your Latex document. Directed by Michael Mohan. Save the World and Fortnite were synonymous at one time—buying Fortnite meant buying Save the World. ) we plot in R programming are displayed on the screen by default. The details may change with different versions, but the principle. packages("lattice") ` * Paste in the contents of this gist (which contains the R Markdown file used to produce this post) and save the file with an `. There are several commands which will direct output to a file instead of the screen. I first type x11(orientation='portrait',width=4,height=3. It doesn't let you generate graphs or do statistics by clicking on menus. Ndlovu A few years ago, one common business case I came across in my professional career that required modelling of data into a many-to-many entity relationship type was the representation of a consultants and their projects.